11. Young People and Alcohol

Policy Tools  ICAP Blue Book  Blue Book Modules  11. Young People and Alcohol

To download this module as a PDF, please click here

Available in Chinese


  • It is generally accepted that young people are at increased risk from certain drinking behaviors. In many countries, young males are more likely to consume alcohol and to display risky drinking behaviors than females.
  • While many factors influence how young people learn to drink and how drinking patterns develop, it has been shown that parents and peers play an important role.
  • Culture is a determining factor in setting norms and expectancies around drinking and in influencing whether, how, and how much young people drink.
  • Although most countries set minimum drinking and purchase ages, there is no universal agreement on the age at which alcohol intake becomes appropriate.
  • Prevention and intervention measures range from limiting young people’s access to alcohol through legal, economic, and social structures to educating young people, servers and retailers, medical professionals, and parents about risks and strategies to reduce the potential for harm.
  • For examples of interventions, see the online database Initiatives Reporting: Industry Actions to Reduce Harmful Drinking.

Drinking among young people is an issue of public health and policy concern in countries around the world. Not all young people drink, and, among those who do, not all do so in a harmful way. However, certain drinking patterns and general risk-taking behavior among youths may place them at considerable risk for harm. Prevention approaches targeted at this population group should aim to ensure that this risk for harm is minimized.

Defining “young people”

Top Of Page

There is currently no consensus regarding the age threshold at which an individual ceases to be a “young person” and becomes an adult. A World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group has defined a young person as someone between the ages of 10 and 24 years ([1], pp. 11-12). For the purposes of alcohol consumption, a number of countries have a legally mandated threshold around drinking, which may or may not coincide with the age of majority for other activities ([2]; see also MODULE 12: Legal Age Limits and ICAP Policy Table: Minimum Age Limits Worldwide).

In developing policy and prevention approaches, it is important to differentiate between young people who are above the legal drinking age and those who are below it. The legal implications of drinking are different for the two groups, as well as for those who sell and serve them alcohol.

Social considerations

Top Of Page

Internationally, experiences with alcohol are relatively common among young people. Drinking before adulthood, however, is generally discouraged in most countries, although young people may be introduced to alcohol at an earlier age in some societies, typically within the family and in the context of meals or celebrations. Such an integrative and relatively permissive approach to drinking is commonly found in cultures with a “Mediterranean” drinking style [3-5].

In general, studies have shown that young males are more likely to drink and do so in higher quantities than young females. However, recent data suggest that in some countries the gender gap among young people is narrowing, with girls and young women “catching up” with their male peers [6-17]. These findings include not only the quantity of alcohol consumption but also frequency and drinking patterns.

Comparative studies across countries suggest that overall drinking culture is an important determinant of how young people drink. Within Mediterranean cultures, for example, young people are more likely to drink and drink more often than their counterparts in other regions [6, 7, 16-19]. At the same time, they are also less likely to engage in excessive and extreme drinking patterns, to get drunk, or to display otherwise problematic drinking behaviors. By contrast, their counterparts in Scandinavia are more likely to drink in a problematic and risky way. This comparison, in addition to other analyses [3, 5, 20-22], suggests that culture plays a prominent role in setting norms and expectancies around drinking, including young people’s drinking.

In addition to culture, other key factors help shape young people’s attitudes toward alcohol consumption. For example:

  • Parental influence and drinking habits play a strong role in shaping drinking behavior in young people [23-32].
  • Family structure can be a protective or a risk factor in the development of drinking patterns. Young people who have a close relationship with their parents and are surrounded by strong family support are less likely to experience problems than those whose families are not intact or who lack adult support and supervision [28-30, 33-39].
  • Peers and friends also play an important role in young people’s decisions on whether and how to drink [28-30, 32, 39-47].
  • Religiosity and active religious involvement appear to have a protective effect on young people’s drinking [48-51].
  • In general, young people involved in extracurricular activities are less likely to experience alcohol-related problems [52], although some evidence exists that youths participating in sports may be more prone to risky drinking practices [52-57].
  • Alcohol expectancies and drinking motives have also been shown to play an important role in shaping drinking patterns of young people. Young people most commonly report drinking for social motives, which is associated with moderate alcohol use. However, young people who drink to cope with negative emotions experience higher rates of alcohol-related problems [58, 59].

Drinking during adolescence may be a predictor of future alcohol misuse and other risky behaviors [60-63]. However, it is unclear as to whether beginning to drink at an earlier age itself increases the likelihood of harmful tendencies in adulthood [63-66]. It may be that early drinking is not the cause but an indicator of other problems and may be coupled with a number of factors and behaviors, such as family troubles or mental illness [39, 65-67].

While alcohol consumption among young people is an area of concern for a variety of social and health reasons, there is also evidence that the majority of youths grow out of their harmful and reckless drinking patterns over time [68-71]. In general, as responsibilities associated with employment, marriage, and children take on a larger role, drinking tends to decrease, as do drinking problems in most people [72-74].

Much Much attention has been given to research on heavy episodic (or “binge”) drinking and related patterns among young people. These behaviors have been studied particularly well among student populations [6, 7, 16, 17, 69, 75, 76]. Social consequences of such consumption include negative effects on studies and academic achievement, family conflict, and risky sexual behavior (see MODULE 6: Binge Drinking; see also [77-83]).

Health considerations

Top Of Page

Several areas have been identified where risk for harm may be increased for young people. In comparison to adults, youths have a greater sensitivity to the effects of alcohol due to developmental changes that occur during childhood and adolescence, potentially resulting in greater risk of physiological damage [79, 84]. The developing brain appears to be more sensitive to disruption by chronic drinking than the mature adult brain [84-86]. As a result, heavy consumption during adolescence may affect the development of certain brain regions [86-88], including the hippocampus, involved in learning and memory [89]. In addition, animal and human studies suggest that early heavy alcohol consumption may have a number of deleterious effects on bone metabolism [90-92] and endocrine development [93, 94].

In addition, alcohol misuse and harmful drinking patterns among young people are correlated with injuries, for example as a result of acute intoxication, traffic crashes, or assault [95-98]. Alcohol-impaired driving among youths accounts for a large proportion of those hurt or killed in road traffic crashes (see MODULE 15: Drinking and Driving and ICAP Issues Briefing: Alcohol-Impaired Driving; see also [99, 100]). For some young people, risky sexual behavior may accompany heavy drinking or intoxication and can result in unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual assault and date rape [80, 101, 102]. Heavy and harmful drinking patterns by young people have been correlated with negative health outcomes in adulthood, including alcohol dependence and problem drinking [79, 82, 84, 103].

Another area for concern is prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol due to maternal drinking patterns. Such exposure has been associated with a range of developmental problems in children and adolescents that may persist into adulthood. These include fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other conditions (see MODULE 10: Drinking and Pregnancy and ICAP Health Briefing: Fetal Alcohol Exposure; see also [104-107]).

A number of risk factors for alcohol misuse among young people have been identified [108]. Genetic predisposition may play a role in the development of alcohol dependence [109-111] and in relative insensitivity to the effects of alcohol [112, 113]. Alcohol problems in some youths may be related to heavy maternal drinking during pregnancy [114, 115]. Various other stressors and environmental factors, such as living with a parent who is an alcohol abuser [116] or heavy drinking within the immediate peer group [30, 44, 45, 117], may also contribute to alcohol problems in young people. However, youths are generally responsive to treatment and intervention, and targeted approaches have been developed to specifically meet their needs (see MODULE 17: Alcohol Dependence and Treatment and MODULE 18: Screening and Brief Intervention).

Implications for policy and prevention

Top Of Page

A variety of measures have been implemented around the world to limit drinking among young people. Yet how best to reduce risks among this population remains, at best, uncertain. No single strategy has been shown to be successful in all settings, and combined initiatives targeting particular behaviors or aspects of drinking may be a more useful approach.

Prevention and intervention measures range from limiting young people’s access to alcohol (e.g., through drinking age laws) to educating them about drinking patterns, outcomes, and coping skills. Approaches also differ with regard to the desired end goal—from, in some cases, complete abstinence to encouraging responsible consumption and minimizing risk [118]. Both approaches have strengths and weaknesses, but recent years have seen a gradual shift in alcohol policy from measures that address entire populations to those that target specific drinking behaviors and minimize harm for groups at risk.

Minimum age limits

Many countries where alcohol consumption is legal mandate a threshold age at which buying or drinking alcohol becomes permitted [2]. There is no universal agreement, however, on the exact age when alcohol consumption is considered appropriate. Legislation tends to reflect the prevailing cultural attitudes toward alcohol and drinking by young people. [119-123]. As a policy measure, the implementation of a minimum drinking age is effective only if it is enforced (see MODULE 12: Legal Age Limits and MODULE 15: Drinking and Driving).

Alcohol education

A variety of factors—such as family, peers, cultural and religious norms, media, and government policies—may contribute to young people’s first experience with alcohol and to the development of subsequent drinking patterns [124]. While all of these factors may play a role, evidence suggests that the strongest influence is that of parents and peers [29, 36].

There is evidence that alcohol education can raise awareness among young people and in some cases change their behavior around drinking ([118]; see also MODULE 1: Alcohol Education). Several approaches have shown particular promise. The social norms approach relies on changing perceptions among young people about how much their peers actually drink (see MODULE 3: Social Norms Marketing; see also [125-129]). Integrative education that also includes family and the community has been found to be particularly effective [130-136]. There is also evidence that life skills training, when incorporated into a general approach to teaching about health and lifestyle issues, can be useful in changing behavior (see MODULE 2: Life Skills; see also [118, 137-140]).

Marketing and advertising

The relationship between beverage alcohol marketing and young people’s drinking is the focus of considerable attention in research, prevention, and policy [141-145]. While there is strong evidence that advertising and marketing are effective in changing brand choices, reviews of the evidence indicate that there is little to no effect on young people’s drinking behavior [141, 144, 146-149].

Most producers of beverage alcohol and related organizations, such as trade associations, have strict rules of conduct around marketing. Internal company guidelines and industry-wide codes exist in which special attention is paid to young people and safeguards around them ([143, 150]; see also ICAP Guiding Principles: Self-Regulation of Marketing Communications for Beverage Alcohol).

Other targeted interventions 

Other targeted interventions have been developed to ensure that risk for harm is minimized for young people who drink. Drink-drive laws in a number of countries set a more stringent standard for permissible blood alcohol content (BAC) for individuals under the legal drinking age (see MODULE 16: Blood Alcohol Concentration Limits and ICAP Policy Table: Blood Alcohol Concentration [BAC] Limits Worldwide). Similarly, in some countries young people are issued graduated driver’s licenses that may restrict the hours during which they are permitted to drive (see MODULE 15: Drinking and Driving and ICAP Issues Briefing: Alcohol-Impaired Driving). As with other measures aimed at minimizing harm through the imposition of legislated means, the effectiveness of these approaches hinges heavily upon enforcement.

In In some jurisdictions, individuals must display identification with proof of age for admission into certain establishments or to be served beverage alcohol (see MODULE 12: Legal Age Limits).

Where beverage alcohol is served or sold, training staff to deal with young people can also help reduce the risk for harm. Severs and retailers may be trained to request age identification, and such IDs may also be mandated by law (see MODULE 4: Responsible Hospitality and ICAP Toolkits: Responsible Hospitality Guides). Servers can be trained to deal with patrons under the legal drinking age who are refused service or access.

Healthcare professionals can be trained to deliver screening and brief interventions. Programs providing screening and brief interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing consumption, number of heavy drinking days, and alcohol-related problems among young people [151-157]. College or university settings are often used for screening and brief intervention programs for young people and have been shown to be effective in reducing quantity and frequency of consumption and binge drinking ([158-175]; see also MODULE 18: Early Identification and Brief Intervention).


Top Of Page

Most young people have some experience with alcohol before reaching adulthood and before they are legally allowed to drink. The cultural acceptability of drinking plays a role in setting legally mandated drinking ages in different countries. It also influences attitudes around drinking and how young people are introduced to alcohol. There is an imperative to ensure that the laws in a given country are observed and that young people are kept out of harm’s way.

Among young people who drink, those who misuse alcohol face considerable risks for health, injury, and social problems. Developmental changes during childhood and adolescence may make young people more susceptible to harm—particularly neurological harm—from alcohol misuse. Dangerous patterns of drinking and risk-taking behaviors place many young people at heightened risk, including from drinking and driving.

A variety of legal, economic, and social measures aimed at preventing underage drinking and at reducing risks are undertaken around the globe. Family, peers, media, government regulation, and culture blend together in creating the environment in which the young begin drinking. Much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms shaping young people’s consumption. Much more, however, remains to be learned in order to enhance the effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs for this group.

POLICY OPTIONS: Young People and Alcohol

Top Of Page

In developing policies and approaches, consideration of a number of key elements is required. While some may be necessary at a minimum and under most conditions, others may not be appropriate in all cases, or may be difficult to implement. The list below offers a menu of areas that need to be addressed, based on effective approaches that have been implemented elsewhere. Specific examples are provided in the online database Initiatives Reporting: Industry Actions to Reduce Harmful Drinking.


Clear definition of legal threshold for drinking and purchase of beverage alcohol.

  • Consideration of local drinking culture and realistic limits.
  • Harmonization of drinking/purchase age with other legal age limits (e.g., age of legal majority, driving age).

Marketing and advertising standards regarding young people.

  • Ensure that commercial communications do not target those under the legal age.
  • Voluntary codes and self-regulation by industry to ensure compliance.
  • Mandated compliance where self-regulation is not effective.

Continued and visible enforcement of rules around drinking age.

  • Ensure awareness of punitive measures for noncompliance.

Education and prevention

Provision of accurate and balanced information for young people and drinking, including both health and social implications. Culturally appropriate prevention and education.

Education of young people about drinking patterns and outcomes.

  • Availability of various approaches including social norms, life skills, and others, as appropriate.
  • Involve families, peers, educators, and others in broader initiatives.
  • Implement combined approaches.

Education of servers and retailers.

  • Ensure awareness of legal age limits and penalties.
  • Provide server training to manage underage individuals in establishments and venues.

Education and training for professionals working with young people.

  • Health professionals trained to provide screening and brief interventions for young people.
  • Training of educators to address drinking, including within school curricula on health.
  • Ensure that social workers and others are skilled to recognize problematic drinking patterns.

Education of parents to discuss and address drinking among young people.

  • Ensure support for parents, including specific relevant materials and resources.

Intervention and treatment

Access to treatment for young people with alcohol problems or dependence.

  • Availability of appropriate screening instruments and intervention approaches.
  • Tailored treatment to address specific needs of young people.


Top Of Page

  1. World Health Organization (WHO). (1986). Young people’s health: A challenge for society. Report of a WHO study group on young people and “Health for all by year 2000” (WHO Technical Report Series No. 731). Geneva: Author.
  2. World Health Organization (WHO). (2004). Global status report: Alcohol policy. Geneva: Author.
  3. Araoz, G. (2004). Cultural considerations. In What drives underage drinking? An international analysis (pp. 39-47). Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies.
  4. Heath, D. B. (Ed.). (1995). International handbook on alcohol and culture. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  5. Heath, D. B. (2000). Drinking occasions: Comparative perspectives on alcohol and culture. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel.
  6. Hibell, B., Andersson, B., Ahlstrom, S., Balakireva, O., Bjarnason, T., Kokkevi, A., et al. (2000). The 1999 ESPAD report: Alcohol and other drug use among students in 30 European countries. Stockholm: Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs.
  7. Hibell, B., Andersson, B., Bjarnason, T., Ahlström, S., Balakireva, O., Kokkevi, A., et al. (2004). The ESPAD report 2003: Alcohol and other drug use among students in 35 European countries. Stockholm: Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN) & Pompidou Group at the Council of Europe.
  8. Higuchi, S., Suzuki, K., Matsushita, S., & Osaki, Y. (2004). Young people’s drinking behavior in Japan. Paper presented at Symposium 40, “Young People’s Drinking: International Perspective,” XVIII World Congress of the World Association for Social Psychiatry, Kobe, Japan.
  9. McPherson, M., Casswell, S., & Pledger, M. (2004). Gender convergence in alcohol consumption and related problems: issues and outcomes from comparisons of New Zealand survey data. Addiction, 99(6), 738-748.
  10. Office for National Statistics. (2004). Living in Britain: Results from the General Household Survey. London: The Stationery Office.
  11. Plant, M. (2004). The alcohol harm reduction strategy for England. British Medical Journal, 328(7445), 905-906.
  12. Plant, M. (1997). Women and alcohol. Contemporary and historical perspectives. London: Free Association Books.
  13. Plant, M., & Plant, M. (2001). Heavy drinking by young British women gives cause for concern. British Medical Journal, 323(7322), 1183.
  14. Plant, M. L., Plant, M. A., & Mason, W. (2002). Drinking, smoking and illicit drug use among British adults: Gender differences explored. Journal of Substance Use, 7(1), 24-33.
  15. Wilsnack, R. W., & Wilsnack, S. C. (Eds.). (1997). Gender and alcohol: Individual and social perspectives. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies.
  16. Hibell, B., Guttormsson, U., Ahlstrom, S., Balakireva, O., Bjarnason, T., Kokkevi, A., et al. (2011). The 2011 ESPAD report: Substance use among students in 36 European countries. Stockholm: Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and other Drugs (CAN).
  17. Currie, C., Zanotti, C., Morgan, A., Currie, D., de Looze, M., Roberts, C., et al. (Eds.). (2012). Social determinants of health and well-being among young people: Health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study: International report from the 2009/2010 survey. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
  18. Currie, C., Roberts, C., Morgan, A., Smith, R., Settertobutle, W., Samdal, O., et al. (Eds.). (2004). Young people’s health in context. Health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study: International report from the 2001/2002 survey. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
  19. Norström, T. (Ed.). (2002). Alcohol in postwar Europe: Consumption, drinking patterns, consequences and policy responses in 15 European countries. Stockholm: National Institute of Public Health.
  20. Choquet, M. (2004). Underage drinking: The epidemiological data. In What drives underage drinking? An international analysis (pp. 14-24). Washington, DC: ICAP.
  21. Beccaria, F., Rolando, S., & Ascani, P. (2012). Alcohol consumption and quality of life among young adults: A comparison among three European countries. Substance Use & Misuse, 47(11), 1214-1223.
  22. De Witte, P., & Mitchell, M. C., Jr. (Eds.). (2012). Underage drinking: A report on drinking in the second decade of life in Europe and North America. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Presses universitaires de Louvain, ABMRF/The Foundation for Alcohol Research, and ERAB: The European Foundation for Alcohol Research.
  23. Van den Eijnden, R., Van den Mheen, D., Vet, R., & Vermulst, A. (2011). Alcohol-specific parenting and adolescents’ alcohol-related problems: the interacting role of alcohol availability at home and parental rules. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72, 408-417.
  24. Ryan, S. M., Jorm, A. F., & Lubman, D. I. (2010). Parenting factors associated with reduced adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 774-783.
  25. Moore, G. F., Rothwell, H., & Segrott, J. (2010). An exploratory study of the relationship between parental attitudes and behaviour and young people's consumption of alcohol. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 5, 6.
  26. Pettersson, C., Linden Bostrom, M., & Eriksson, C. (2009). Parental attitudes and behavior concerning adolescent alcohol consumption: Do sociodemographic factors matter? Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 37, 509-517.
  27. Tildesley, E. A., & Andrews, J. A. (2008). The development of children’s intentions to use alcohol: direct and indirect effects of parent alcohol use and parenting behaviors. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22, 326-339.
  28. Hellandsjo Bu, E. T., Watten, R. G., Foxcroft, D. R., Ingebrigtsen, J. E., & Relling, G. (2002). Teenage alcohol and intoxication debut: The impact of family socialization factors, living area and participation in organized sports. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 37(1), 74-80.
  29. Milgram, G. G. (2001). Alcohol influences: The role of family and peers. In E. Houghton & A. Roche (Eds.), Learning about drinking (pp. 85-107). Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.
  30. Wood, M. D., Read, J. P., Mitchell, R. E., & Brand, N. H. (2004). Do parents still matter? Parent and peer influences on alcohol involvement among recent high school graduates. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(1), 19-30.
  31. Donovan, J. E., Leech, S. L., Zucker, R. A., Loveland-Cherry, C. J., Jester, J. M., Fitzgerald, H. E., et al. (2004). Really underage drinkers: Alcohol use among elementary students. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(2), 341-349.
  32. Martino, S. C., Ellickson, P. L., & McCaffrey, D. F. (2009). Multiple trajectories of peer and parental influence and their association with the development of adolescent heavy drinking. Addictive Behaviors, 34(8), 693-700.
  33. Llorens, N., Barrio, G., Sanchez, A., & Suelves, J. M. (2011). Effects of socialization and family factors on adolescent excessive drinking in Spain. Prev Sci, 12(2), 150-161.
  34. McMorris, B. J., Catalano, R. F., Kim, M. J., Toumbourou, J. W., & Hemphill, S. A. (2011). Influence of family factors and supervised alcohol use on adolescent alcohol use and harms: similarities between youth in different alcohol policy contexts. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72, 418-428.
  35. Bjarnason, T., Andersson, B., Choquet, M., Elekes, Z., Morgan, M., & Rapinett, G. (2003). Alcohol culture, family structure and adolescent alcohol use: Multilevel modeling of frequency of heavy drinking among 15-16 year old students in 11 European countries. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(2), 200-208.
  36. Sanchez-Sosa, J. J., & Poldrugo, F. (2001). Family and cultural influences on alcohol and young people. In E. Houghton & A. Roche (Eds.), Learning about drinking (pp. 57-83). Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.
  37. Turrisi, R., Wiersma, K. A., & Hughes, K. K. (2000). Binge-drinking-related consequences in college students: Role of drinking beliefs and mother-teen communications. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(4), 342-355.
  38. Vakalahi, H. F. (2001). Adolescent substance use and family-based risk and protective factors: a literature review. Journal of Drug Education, 31(1), 29-46.
  39. Windle, M., Spear, L. P., Fuligni, A. J., Angold, A., Brown, J. D., Pine, D., et al. (2009). Transitions into underage and problem drinking: Summary of developmental processes and mechanisms: ages 10-15. Alcohol Research and Health, 32(1), 30-40.
  40. Mundt, M. P. (2011). The impact of peer social networks on adolescent alcohol use initiation. Academic Pediatrics, 11(5), 414-421.
  41. Van der Vorst, H., Engels, R. C., & Burk, W. J. (2010). Do parents and best friends influence the normative increase in adolescents’ alcohol use at home and outside the home. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 105-114.
  42. Spijkerman, R., Van den Eijnden, R. J., Overbeek, G., & Engels, R. C. (2007). The impact of peer and parental norms and behavior on adolescent drinking: the role of drinker prototypes. Psychology and Health, 22, 7-29.
  43. Andrews, J. A., Tildesley, E., Hops, H., & Li, F. (2002). The influence of peers on young adult substance use. Health Psychology, 21, 349–357.
  44. Arata, C. M., Stafford, J., & Tims, M. S. (2003). High school drinking and its consequences. Adolescence, 38(151), 567-579.
  45. Borsari, B., & Carey, K. B. (2001). Peer influences on college drinking: a review of the research. Journal of Substance Abuse, 13(4), 391-424.
  46. Geckova, A., & van Dijk, J. P. (2001). Peer impact on smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use and sports activities in adolescents. Studia Psychologica, 43, 113-123.
  47. Miller, P., & Plant, M. (2003). Family, peer influences and substance use: Findings from a study of U.K. teenagers. Journal of Substance Abuse, 8, 201-233.
  48. Borynski, M. L. (2003). Factors related to reductions in alcohol consumption among college students: The role of religious involvement. Current Psychology, 22, 138-148.
  49. Kerestes, M., Youniss, J., & Metz, E. (2004). Longitudinal patterns of religious perspective and civic integration. Applied Developmental Science, 8, 39-46.
  50. Mason, W. A., & Windle, M. (2002). Longitudinal study of the effects of religiosity on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Journal of Adolescent Research, 17, 346-363.
  51. Donovan, J. E., & Molina, B. S. (2011). Childhood risk factors for early-onset drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72(5), 741-751.
  52. Eccles, J. S., & Barber, B. L. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular involvement matters? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 6, 281-294.
  53. Leichliter, J. S., Meilman, P. W., Presley, C. A., & Cashin, J. R. (1998). Alcohol use and related consequences among students with varying levels of involvement in college athletics. Journal of American College Health, 46, 257-262.
  54. Nelson, T. F., & Wechsler, H. (2001). Alcohol and college athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(1), 43-47.
  55. Lorente, F. O., Souville, M., Griffet, J., & Grelot, L. (2004). Participation in sports and alcohol consumption among French adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 29(5), 941-946.
  56. Mays, D., & Thompson, N. J. (2009). Alcohol-related risk behaviors and sports participation among adolescents: An analysis of 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(1), 87-89.
  57. Wichstrom, T., & Wichstrom, L. (2009). Does sports participation during adolescence prevent later alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use? Addiction, 104(1), 138-149.
  58. Kuntsche, E., Knibbe, R., Gmel, G., & Engels, R. (2005). Why do young people drink? A review of drinking motives. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(7), 841-861.
  59. Kuntsche, E., Stewart, S. H., & Cooper, M. L. (2008). How stable is the motive-alcohol use link? A cross-national validation of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised among adolescents from Switzerland, Canada, and the United States. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69(3), 388-396.
  60. Grant, B. F., & Dawson, D. A. (1997). Alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence among welfare recipients. American Journal of Public Health, 86(10), 1450-1454.
  61. Grant, B. F., Stinson, F. S., & Harford, T. C. (2001). Age at onset of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: A 12-year follow-up. Journal of Substance Abuse, 13(4), 493-504.
  62. Gruber, E., DiClemente, R. J., Anderson, M. M., & Lodico, M. (1996). Early drinking onset and its association with alcohol use and problem behavior in late adolescence. Preventative Medicine, 25(3), 293-300.
  63. Hawkins, J. D., Graham, J. W., Maguin, E., Abbott, R., Hill, K. G., & Catalano, R. F. (1997). Exploring the effects of age of alcohol use initiation and psychosocial risk factors on subsequent alcohol misuse. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58(3), 280-290.
  64. Donovan, J. E., & Molina, B. S. (2008). Children's introduction to alcohol use: sips and tastes. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 32(1), 108-119.
  65. McGue, M., Iacono, W. G., Legrand, L. N., Malone, S., & Elkins, I. (2001). Origins and consequences of age at first drink. I. Associations with substance-use disorders, disinhibitory behavior and psychopathology, and P3 amplitude. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 1156-1165.
  66. Prescott, C. A., & Kendler, K. S. (1999). Age at first drink and risk for alcoholism. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 23, 101-107.
  67. Ward, B., Snow, P., & Aroni, R. (2010). Children’s alcohol initiation: An analytic overview. Drugs: Education Prevention and Policy, 17, 270-277.
  68. Chassin, L., Pitts, S. C., & Prost, J. (2002). Binge drinking trajectories from adolescence to emerging adulthood in a high-risk sample: predictors and substance abuse outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(1), 67-78.
  69. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2009). Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2008 Vol 1. Secondary School Students 2008. Bethesda, Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
  70. O'Neill, S. E., Parra, G. R., & Sher, K. J. (2001). Clinical relevance of heavy drinking during the college years: cross-sectional and prospective perspectives. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(4), 350-359.
  71. Schulenberg, J., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Wadsworth, K. N., & Johnston, L. D. (1996). Getting drunk and growing up: trajectories of frequent binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57(3), 289-304.
  72. Bachman, J. G., Safron, D. J., Sy, S. R., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2003). Wishing to work: New perspectives on how adolescents' part-time work intensity is linked to educational disengagement, substance use, and other problem behaviours. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 301-315.
  73. Bachman, J. G., Wadsworth, K. N., O'Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D., & Schulenberg, J. E. (1997). Smoking, drinking, and drug use in young adulthood: The impacts of new freedoms and new responsibilities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  74. O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Johnston, L. D., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2004). Studying the transition from youth to adulthood: Impacts on substance use and abuse. In J. S. House, F. T. Juster, R. L. Kahn, H. Schuman, & E. Single (Eds.), A telescope on society: Survey research and social science at the University of Michigan and beyond (pp. 305-329). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
  75. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2004). Overview of findings from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Rockville, MD: SAMHSA.
  76. Wechsler, H., Lee, J. E., Kuo, M., Seibring, M., Nelson, T. F., & Lee, H. (2002). Trends in college binge drinking during a period of increased prevention efforts. Findings from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study surveys: 1993-2001. Journal of American College Health, 50(5), 203-217.
  77. Danielsson, A. K., Romelsjo, A., & Tengstrom, A. (2011). Heavy episodic drinking in early adolescence: gender-specific risk and protective factors. Substance Use and Misuse, 46(5), 633-643.
  78. Page, R. M., Ihasz, F., Hantiu, I., Simonek, J., & Klarova, R. (2008). Social normative perceptions of alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among Central and Eastern European adolescents. Substance Use and Misuse, 43, 361-373.
  79. Brown, S. A., & Tapert, S. F. (2004). Health consequences of adolescent alcohol involvement. In National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (Ed.), Reducing underage drinking: A collective responsibility, background papers [CD-ROM]. Committee on Developing a Strategy to Reduce and Prevent Underage Drinking, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  80. Grunbaum, J. A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S. A., Williams, B., Ross, J. G., Lowry, R., et al. (2002). Youth risk behavior surveillance: United States, 2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance Summaries, 51(4), 1-62.
  81. Hingson, R., & Kenkel, D. (2004). Social, health, and economic consequences of underage drinking. In Committee on Developing a Strategy to Reduce and Prevent Underage Drinking (Ed.), National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Reducing underage drinking: A collective responsibility [Background papers]. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  82. Jennison, K. M. (2004). The short-term effects and unintended long-term consequences of binge drinking in college: A 10-year follow-up study. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 30(3), 659-684.
  83. Perkins, H. W. (2002). Surveying the damage: a review of research on consequences of alcohol misuse in college populations. Journal of Studies on Alcohol(Supplement 14), 91-100.
  84. Spear, L. (2004). Biomedical aspects of underage drinking. In What drives underage drinking? An international analysis. International Center for Alcohol Policies: Washington, DC. pp. 25-38.
  85. Silveri, M. M. (2012). Adolescent brain development and underage drinking in the United States: Identifying risks of alcohol use in college populations. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 20(4), 189-200.
  86. Hanson, K. L., Medina, K. L., Padula, C. B., Tapert, S. F., & Brown, S. A. (2011). Impact of adolescent alcohol and drug use on neuropsychological functioning in young adulthood: 10-year outcomes. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 20(2), 135-154.
  87. Brown, S. A., Tapert, S. F., Granholm, E., & Delis, D. C. (2000). Neurocognitive functioning of adolescents: effects of protracted alcohol use. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 24(2), 164-171.
  88. Tapert, S. F., Brown, G. G., Kindermann, S. S., Cheung, E. H., Frank, L. R., & Brown, S. A. (2001). fMRI measurement of brain dysfunction in alcohol-dependent young women. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25(2), 236-245.
  89. De Bellis, M. D., Clark, D. B., Beers, S. R., Soloff, P. H., Boring, A. M., Hall, J., et al. (2000). Hippocampal volume in adolescent-onset alcohol use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(5), 737-744.
  90. Klein, R. F. (1997). Alcohol-induced bone disease: impact of ethanol on osteoblast proliferation. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 21(3), 392-399.
  91. Sampson, H. W., Gallager, S., Lange, J., Chondra, W., & Hogan, H. A. (1999). Binge drinking and bone metabolism in a young actively growing rat model. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 23(7), 1228-1231.
  92. Kim, M. H., Chung, Y. S., & Sung, C. J. (2007). Negative effects of alcohol consumption and tobacco use on bone formation markers in young Korean adult males. Nutrition Research, 27(2), 104-108.
  93. Dees, W. L., Dissen, G. A., Hiney, J. K., Lara, F., & Ojeda, S. R. (2000). Alcohol ingestion inhibits the increased secretion of puberty-related hormones in the developing female rhesus monkey. Endocrinology, 141(4), 1325-1331.
  94. Frias, J., Rodriguez, R., Torres, J. M., Ruiz, E., & Ortega, E. (2000). Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on pituitary-gonadal axis hormones, pituitary-adrenal axis hormones, beta-endorphin and prolactin in human adolescents of both sexes. Life Sciences, 67, 1081-1086.
  95. Smith, G. S., Branas, C. C., & Miller, T. R. (1999). Fatal nontraffic injuries involving alcohol: A metaanalysis. Ann Emerg Med, 33(6), 659-668.
  96. Turner, J. C., & Shu, J. (2004). Serious health consequences associated with alcohol use among college students: Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients seen in an emergency department. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65, 179-183.
  97. Hingson, R., Heeren, T., Winter, M., & Wechsler, H. (2005). Magnitude of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among US college students ages 18-24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 259–279.
  98. Mundt, M. P., Zakletskaia, L. I., Brown, D. D., & Fleming, M. F. (2012). Alcohol-induced memory blackouts as an indicator of injury risk among college drinkers. Injury Prevention, 18(1), 44-49.
  99. Hingson, R. W., Heeren, T., Zakocs, R. C., Kopstein, A., & Wechsler, H. (2002). Magnitude of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among U.S. college students ages 18-24. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63(2), 136-144.
  100. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2004). Traffic safety facts 2003. Washington, DC: Author.
  101. Harrington, N. T., & Leitenberg, H. (1994). Relationship between alcohol consumption and victim behaviors immediately preceding sexual aggression by an acquaintance. Violence and Victims, 9, 315–324.
  102. Mohler-Kuo, M., Dowdall, G. W., Koss, M. P., & Wechsler, H. (2004). Correlates of rape while intoxicated in a national sample of college women. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65, 37-45.
  103. McCambridge, J., McAlaney, J., & Rowe, R. (2011). Adult consequences of late adolescent alcohol consumption: a systematic review of cohort studies. PLoS Medicine, 8(2), e1000413.
  104. Florey, C. D. (1992). EUROMAC. A European concerted action: Maternal alcohol consumption and its relation to the outcome of pregnancy and child development at 18 months: Methods. International Journal of Epidemiology, 21(Supplement 1), S38–S39.
  105. Institute of Medicine. (1996). Fetal alcohol syndrome: Diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academy Press.
  106. Plant, M. L., Abel, E. L., & Guerri, C. (1999). Alcohol and pregnancy. In I. Macdonald (Ed.), Health issues related to alcohol consumption (2nd ed., pp. 182-213). Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Science.
  107. Werler, M. M., Lammer, E. J., Rosenberg, L., & Mitchell, A. A. (1991). Maternal alcohol use in relation to selected birth defects. American Journal of Epidemiology, 134, 691-698.
  108. Brown, S. A., McGue, M., Maggs, J., Schulenberg, J., Hingson, R., Swartzwelder, S., et al. (2009). Underage alcohol use: Summary of developmental processes and mechanisms: ages 16-20. Alcohol Research and Health, 32(1), 41-52.
  109. Begleiter, H., & Porjesz, B. (1999). What is inherited in the predisposition toward alcoholism? A proposed model. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 23(7), 1125-1135.
  110. Schuckit, M. A. (1999). New findings in the genetics of alcoholism. Jama, 281(20), 1875-1876.
  111. King, S. M., Keyes, M., Malone, S. M., Elkins, I., Legrand, L. N., Iacono, W. G., et al. (2009). Parental alcohol dependence and the transmission of adolescent behavioral disinhibition: A study of adoptive and non-adoptive families. Addiction, 104(4), 578-586.
  112. Heath, A. C., Madden, P. A., Bucholz, K. K., Dinwiddie, S. H., Slutske, W. S., Bierut, L. J., et al. (1999). Genetic differences in alcohol sensitivity and the inheritance of alcoholism risk. Psycholical Medicine, 29(5), 1069-1081.
  113. Schuckit, M. A. (1994). Low level of response to alcohol as a predictor of future alcoholism. Am J Psychiatry, 151(2), 184-189.
  114. Baer, J. S., Sampson, P. D., Barr, H. M., Connor, P. D., & Streissguth, A. P. (2003). A 21-year longitudinal analysis of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on young adult drinking. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(4), 377-385.
  115. Yates, W. R., Cadoret, R. J., Troughton, E. P., Stewart, M., & Giunta, T. S. (1998). Effect of fetal alcohol exposure on adult symptoms of nicotine, alcohol, and drug dependence. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 22(4), 914-920.
  116. Chassin, L., Curran, P. J., Hussong, A. M., & Colder, C. R. (1996). The relation of parent alcoholism to adolescent substance use: A longitudinal follow-up study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(1), 70-80.
  117. Kypri, K., & Langley, J. D. (2003). Perceived social norms and their relation to university student drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(6), 829-834.
  118. International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). (2004). Alcohol education and its effectiveness (ICAP Report 16). Washington, DC: ICAP.
  119. Carpenter, C., & Dobkin, C. (2011). The minimum legal drinking age and public health. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(2), 133-156.
  120. Gordon, R., Harris, F., Mackintosh, A. M., & Moodie, C. (2011). Assessing the cumulative impact of alcohol marketing on young people’s drinking: cross-sectional data findings. Addiction Research and Theory, 19, 66-75.
  121. Keller, A., Frye, L., Bauerle, J., & Turner, J. C. (2009). Legal ages for purchase and consumption of alcohol and heavy drinking among college students in Canada, Europe, and the United States. Substance Abuse, 30(3), 248-252.
  122. Collins, R. L., Ellickson, P. L., McCaffrey, D., & Hambarsoomians, K. (2007). Early adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising and its relationship to underage drinking. J Adolesc Health, 40(6), 527-534.
  123. Lipperman-Kreda, S., Grube, J. W., & Paschall, M. J. (2010). Community norms, enforcement of minimum legal drinking age laws, personal beliefs and underage drinking: An explanatory model. Journal of Community Health, 35(3), 249-257.
  124. Houghton, E., & Roche, A. M. (Eds.). (2001). Learning about drinking. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.
  125. Mattern, J. L., & Neighbors, C. (2004). Social norms campaigns: Examining the relationship between changes in perceived norms and changes in drinking levels. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65, 489-493.
  126. Perkins, H. W. (Ed.). (2003). Social norms approach to preventing school and college age substance abuse: A handbook for educators, counselors, and clinicians. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  127. Perkins, H. W., & Craig, D. W. (2002). A multifaceted social norms approach to reduce high-risk drinking: Lessons from Hobart and William Smith Colleges. Newton, MA: Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention.
  128. Perkins, H. W., & Craig, D. W. (2006). A successful social norms campaign to reduce alcohol misuse among college student-athletes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(6), 880-889.
  129. Glider, P., Midyett, S. J., Mills-Novoa, B., Johannessen, K., & Collins, C. (2001). Challenging the collegiate rite of passage: A campus-wide social marketing media campaign to reduce binge drinking. Journal of Drug Education, 31(2), 207-220.
  130. Ashery, R. S., Robertson, E. B., & Kumpfer, K. L. (Eds.). (1998). Drug abuse prevention through family interventions (Vol. 177). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Drug Abuse.
  131. Foxcroft, D. R., Ireland, D., Lister-Sharp, D. J., Lowe, G., & Breen, R. (2003). Longer-term primary prevention for alcohol misuse in young people: A systematic review. Addiction, 98, 397-411.
  132. Holder, H. D., Gruenewald, P. J., Ponicki, W. R., Treno, A. J., Grube, J. W., Saltz, R. F., et al. (2000). Effect of community-based interventions on high-risk drinking and alcohol-related injuries. Journal of American Medical Association, 284(18), 2341-2347.
  133. Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., & Whiteside, H. O. (2003). Family-based interventions for substance use and misuse prevention. Substance Use and Misuse, 38, 1759-1787.
  134. Spoth, R., Redmond, C., & Lepper, H. (1999). Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl, 13(Supplement 13), 103-111.
  135. Wagenaar, A. C., Murray, D. M., Gehan, J. P., Wolfson, M., Forster, J. L., Toomey, T. L., et al. (2000). Communities mobilizing for change on alcohol: outcomes from a randomized community trial. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61(1), 85-94.
  136. Foxcroft, D. R., & Tsertsvadze, A. (2011). Universal family-based prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 9, CD009308.
  137. Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Botvin, E. M., & Diaz, T. (1995). Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. Jama, 273(14), 1106-1112.
  138. Botvin, G. J., Griffin, K. W., Paul, E., & Macaulay, A. P. (2003). Preventing tobacco and alcohol use among elementary school students through life skills training. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 12, 1-17.
  139. International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). (2000). Life skills education in South Africa and Botswana. Washington, DC: ICAP.
  140. Foxcroft, D. R., & Tsertsvadze, A. (2011). Universal school-based prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009113(5), CD009113.
  141. Nelson, J. P. (2011). Alcohol marketing, adolescent drinking and publication bias in longitudinal studies: A critical survey using meta-analysis. Journal of Economic Surveys, 25(2), 191-232.
  142. Grube, J. W. (2004). Alcohol in the media: Drinking portrayals, alcohol advertising, and alcohol consumption among youth. In National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (Ed.), Reducing underage drinking: A collective responsibility, background papers (pp. 597-624). Committee on Developing a Strategy to Reduce and Prevent Underage Drinking, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  143. International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). (2002). Industry views on beverage alcohol advertising and marketing, with special reference to young people. Prepared for the World Health Organization. Washington, DC: ICAP.
  144. Smith, L. A., & Foxcroft, D. R. (2009). The effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behaviour in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort studies. BMC Public Health, 9, 51.
  145. Babor, T. F., Caetano, R., Casswell, S., Edwards, G., Giesbrecht, N., Graham, K., et al. (2010). Alcohol: No ordinary commodity. Research and public policy. (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
  146. Grube, J. W., & Waiters, E. (2005). Alcohol in the media: Content and effects on drinking beliefs and behaviours among youth. Adolescent Medicine Clinics, 16, 327-343.
  147. Anderson, P., de Bruijn, A., Angus, K., Gordon, R., & Hastings, G. (2009). Impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on adolescent alcohol use: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 44, 229-243.
  148. Nelson, J. P. (2001). Alcohol advertising bans: A survey of research methods, results, and policy implications. In M. R. Baye & J. P. Nelson (Eds.), Advances in applied microeconomics (Vol. 10: Advertising and differentiated products, pp. 239-295). Amsterdam: JAI Press & Elsevier Press.
  149. Fisher, J. C. (1993). Advertising, alcohol consumption, and abuse: A worldwide survey. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  150. Grant, M., & O'Connor, J. (Eds.). (2005). Corporate social responsibility and alcohol: The need and potential for partnership. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
  151. Suffoletto, B., Callaway, C., Kristan, J., Kraemer, K., & Clark, D. B. (2012). Text-message-based drinking assessments and brief interventions for young adults discharged from the emergency department. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 36(3), 552-560.
  152. Gaume, J., Gmel, G., Faouzi, M., Bertholet, N., & Daeppen, J. B. (2011). Is brief motivational intervention effective in reducing alcohol use among young men voluntarily receiving it? A randomized controlled trial. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35(10), 1822-1830.
  153. Segatto, M. L., Andreoni, S., de Souza e Silva, R., Diehl, A., & Pinsky, I. (2011). Brief motivational interview and educational brochure in emergency room settings for adolescents and young adults with alcohol-related problems: A randomized single-blind clinical trial. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 33(3), 225-233.
  154. Daeppen, J. B., Bertholet, N., Gaume, J., Fortini, C., Faouzi, M., & Gmel, G. (2011). Efficacy of brief motivational intervention in reducing binge drinking in young men: A randomized controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 113(1), 69-75.
  155. Spijkerman, R., Roek, M. A., Vermulst, A., Lemmers, L., Huiberts, A., & Engels, R. C. (2010). Effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention and added value of normative feedback in reducing underage drinking: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 12(5), e65.
  156. Walton, M. A., Chermack, S. T., Shope, J. T., Bingham, C. R., Zimmerman, M. A., Blow, F. C., et al. (2010). Effects of a brief intervention for reducing violence and alcohol misuse among adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 304(5), 527-535.
  157. Doumas, D. M., & Hannah, E. (2008). Preventing high-risk drinking in youth in the workplace: A web-based normative feedback program. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 34(3), 263-271.
  158. DiFulvio, G. T., Linowski, S. A., Mazziotti, J. S., & Puleo, E. (2012). Effectiveness of the Brief Alcohol and Screening Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program with a mandated population. Journal of American College Health, 60(4), 269-280.
  159. Dermen, K. H., & Thomas, S. N. (2011). Randomized controlled trial of brief interventions to reduce college students' drinking and risky sex. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25(4), 583-594.
  160. Carey, K. B., Carey, M. P., Henson, J. M., Maisto, S. A., & DeMartini, K. S. (2011). Brief alcohol interventions for mandated college students: Comparison of face-to-face counseling and computer-delivered interventions. Addiction, 106(3), 528-537.
  161. Kazemi, D. M., Sun, L., Nies, M. A., Dmochowski, J., & Walford, S. M. (2011). Alcohol screening and brief interventions for college freshmen. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 49(1), 35-42.
  162. Bewick, B. M., West, R., Gill, J., O'May, F., Mulhern, B., Barkham, M., et al. (2010). Providing web-based feedback and social norms information to reduce student alcohol intake: A multisite investigation. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 12(5), e59.
  163. Kulesza, M., Apperson, M., Larimer, M. E., & Copeland, A. L. (2010). Brief alcohol intervention for college drinkers: How brief is? Addictive Behaviors, 35(7), 730-733.
  164. Fleming, M. F., Balousek, S. L., Grossberg, P. M., Mundt, M. P., Brown, D., Wiegel, J. R., et al. (2010). Brief physician advice for heavy drinking college students: a randomized controlled trial in college health clinics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71(1), 23-31.
  165. Amaro, H., Reed, E., Rowe, E., Picci, J., Mantella, P., & Prado, G. (2010). Brief screening and intervention for alcohol and drug use in a college student health clinic: Feasibility, implementation, and outcomes. Journal of American College Health, 58(4), 357-364.
  166. Kypri, K., Hallett, J., Howat, P., McManus, A., Maycock, B., Bowe, S., et al. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of proactive web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention for university students. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(16), 1508-1514.
  167. Walters, S. T., Vader, A. M., Harris, T. R., Field, C. A., & Jouriles, E. N. (2009). Dismantling motivational interviewing and feedback for college drinkers: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 64-73.
  168. Lau-Barraco, C., & Dunn, M. E. (2008). Evaluation of a single-session expectancy challenge intervention to reduce alcohol use among college students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(2), 168-175.
  169. Kypri, K., Langley, J. D., Saunders, J. B., Cashell-Smith, M. L., & Herbison, P. (2008). Randomized controlled trial of web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(5), 530-536.
  170. LaBrie, J. W., Hummer, J. F., Neighbors, C., & Pedersen, E. R. (2008). Live interactive group-specific normative feedback reduces misperceptions and drinking in college students: A randomized cluster trial. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(1), 141-148.
  171. LaBrie, J. W., Huchting, K., Tawalbeh, S., Pedersen, E. R., Thompson, A. D., Shelesky, K., et al. (2008). A randomized motivational enhancement prevention group reduces drinking and alcohol consequences in first-year college women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(1), 149-155.
  172. Bingham, C. R., Barretto, A. I., Walton, M. A., Bryant, C. M., Shope, J. T., & Raghunathan, T. E. (2011). Efficacy of a web-based, tailored, alcohol prevention/intervention program for college students: 3-month follow-up. Journal of Drug Education, 41(4), 405-430.
  173. Butler, L. H., & Correia, C. J. (2009). Brief alcohol intervention with college student drinkers: Face-to-face versus computerized feedback. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23(1), 163-167.
  174. Simao, M. O., Kerr-Correa, F., Smaira, S. I., Trinca, L. A., Floripes, T. M., Dalben, I., et al. (2008). Prevention of "risky" drinking among students at a Brazilian university. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 43(4), 470-476.
  175. Wood, M. D., Fairlie, A. M., Fernandez, A. C., Borsari, B., Capone, C., Laforge, R., et al. (2010). Brief motivational and parent interventions for college students: A randomized factorial study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(3), 349-361.